Theatrical Dialogue in the Digital Age: From Director’s Theatre to the Theatre Onscreen
Thanks to its inherent nature, theatre has been better able than other artforms to resist the challenges presented by information and digital culture, which are based on the principle of reproduction. Since a theatrical text is created anew each time, an audience can enter into a real-time dialogue with a concrete group of players recreating an authorial concept. This is true even when, as in director’s theatre, a director’s interpretation is performed by different acting companies.
Today, however, the hubris of theatre critics and enthusiasts, who value unmediated dialogue as a pre-condition of theatrical pragmatics, has collided with the novel theatrical practice of live broadcasting, which was preceded by the standalone genres of radio and television plays. As a performance art, theatre possesses characteristics of a virtual object, where the information about such an object exists only in the memories of audiences or professional critics. In becoming digitised, theatre loses its former character – the uniqueness of presence in a concrete theatrical here-and-now that can never be repeated – and acquires a new mode of existence within a movie theatre represented in Russia by the Theatre HD project, which translates the theatrical educational mission into the digital age by involving new participants in creative dialogue.
- Artaud, A. (1993). Teatr i yego dvoynik [The Theatre and Its Double] (S. A. Isaev, Trans.) Moscow: Martis. (Originally published in French 1938)
- Atkinson, S., & Kennedy, H. W. (2016a). Inside-the-scenes: The Rise of Experiential Cinema. Participations: Journal of Audience & Reception Studies, 13(1), 139–151.
- Atkinson, S., & Kennedy, H. W. (2016b). Live Cinema Conference. Alphaville, 12. Retrieved from http://www.alphavillejournal.com/Issue12/HTML/ReportAtkinsonKennedy.html
- Barker, M. (2013). Live to Your Local Cinema: The Remarkable Rise of Livecasting. London: Palgrave Pivot. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137288691
- Barthes, R. (1989). Izbrannye raboty: Semiotika, Poetika [Selected Works: Semiotics. Poetics] (G. K. Kosikov, Trans. & Ed.). Moscow: Progress. (Originally published in French)
- Battersby, M. (2016, December 12). Live Theatre on the Big Screen: The Fear that Streaming Plays in Cinemas Would Cannibalise Theatre Sales Has Largely Been Disproven. The Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/theatre-dance/features/no-mans-land-patrick-stewart-ian-mckellen-national-theatre-live-harold-pinter-a7469726.html
- Benjamin, W. (2012). O yazyke voobsche i o chelovecheskom yazyke [About Language in General and about Human Language]. In Ucheniye o podobii. Mediaesteticheskiye proisvedeniya [Doctrine of the Similar. Media aesthetic works] (pp. 7–26). Moscow: Russian State University for the Humanities Publishing. (Originally published in German)
- Bradby, W., & Williams, D. (1988). Directors’ Theatre (Modern Dramatists). Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan Education.
- Brecht, B. (2014). Teoriya radio. 1927–1932 [Radio Theory. 1927–1932] (E. A. Katseva & S. Tashkenov, Trans.). Moscow: Ad Marginem. (Originally published in German)
- Bulgakowa, O. (1988). Montazh – v teatral’noy laboratorii 20-kh godov. [Editing – in the Theatrical Laboratory of the 20s]. In anthology Editing. Theatre, Art, Literature, Movie (pp. 99–118). Moscow: Nauka.
- Bulgakowa, O. (2015). Golos kak kul’turnyi fenomen [Voice as a Cultural Phenomenon]. Moscow: NLO.
- Chubarov, I. (2018). Teoriya media Val'tera Ben'yamina i russkiy levyi avangard: gazeta, radio, kino [Walter Benjamin’s Media Theory and the Russian Left Avant-Garde: Newspaper, Radio, Cinema]. Logos, 1(122), 233–260.
- Deleuze, G. (1998). Razlichie I povtorenie [Difference and Repetition] (N. B. Man’kovskaya & E. P. Yurovskaya, Trans.). St. Petersburg: Petropolis. (Originally published in French 1969)
- Eisenstein, S. M. (1997). Memuary [Memoirs] (Vol. 1). Moscow: Trud, Muzey kino.
- Gardner, L. (2015, May 6). To Beam or Not to Beam? How Live Broadcasts are Changing Theatre. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/stage/theatreblog/2015/may/06/effects-of-live-satellite-broadcasts-national-theatre-rsc
- Hitchman, L. (2018). From Page to Stage to Screen: The Live Theatre Broadcast as a New Medium. Adaptation, 11(2), 171–185. https://doi.org/10.1093/adaptation/apx029
- Kogut, N. (2019). Kadrirovannyi teatr: Theatre HD kak gibridnaya forma media [Framed Theatre: Theatre HD as a Hybrid Form of Media]. The Art and Science of Television, 15(2), 65–89. https://doi.org/10.30628/1994-9529-2019-15.2-65-89
- Lehmann, H.-T. (2013). Postdramaticheskiy teatr [Post-dramatic Theatre] (N. V. Isaeva, Trans.). Moscow: ABCdesign. (Originally published in German 1999)
- Lotman, Yu. M. (1998). Semiotika stseny [Semiotics of the Scene]. In Ob iskusstve: Struktura khudozhestvennogo teksta. Semiotika kino i problemy kinoestetiki. Staty’i, zametki, vystupleniya (1962–1993) [On the Art: The Structure of a Literary Text. Semiotics of Cinema and Problems of Cinema Aesthetics. Articles. Notes. Speeches (1962–1993)] (рp. 583–602). St. Petersburg: Iskusstvo-SPb.
- Meyerhold, V. E. (1968). Pis’ma. Vystupleniya. [Letters. Speeches.] Moscow: Iskusstvo.
- Meyerhold, V. E. (2016). Chaplin i chaplinism [Chaplin and Chaplinism]. In S. A. Oushakine (Ed.), Formal'nyy metod: Antologiya russkogo modernizma [Formal Method: Anthology of Russian Modernism] (Vol. 3, pp. 702–717). Yekaterinburg & Moscow: Kabinetnyi uchenyi. (Lecture given in Russian on 13 July 1936)
- Nemchenko, L. (2008). Rezhissyorskiy teatr: ot iskusstva “slushat’” k iskusstvu “smotret’” [Director’s Theatre: from the Art of “Listening” to the Art of “Watching”]. In Proceedings of the conference “Zritel’ v iskusstve: interpretatsiya i tvorchestvo” held in St. Petersburg on 26–27 March 2007 (Part 2, pp. 81–86). St. Petersburg: Izdatel’stvo SPbGU.
- Pavis, P. (1991). Slovar’ teatra [Dictionary of the Theatre]. Moscow: Progress. (Originally published in French 1987)
- Rudnev, P. (2013, November 27). Teatral’nyye vpechatleniya Pavla Rudneva [Theatrical Impressions of Pavel Rudnev]. Livejournal.com. Retrieved from http://pavelrudnev.livejournal.com/1572288.html
- Rudnev, P. (2014, October 29). Krisis interpretatsii v teatre: pochemu teatr perestayot “obsluzhivat’” literaturu [The Crisis of Interpretation in Theatre: Why Does Theatre Cease to “Serve” Literature]. Teatral. Retrieved from https://teatral-online.ru/news/12595/
- Rudnitsky, K. (1981). Meyerhold. Moscow: Iskusstvo.
- Ubersfeld, A. (1992). Iz knigi “Shkola zritelya” [From the book “School of the Spectator”]. In S. A. Isaev (Ed.), Kak vsegda – ob avangarde. Antologiya frantsuzskogo teatral’nogo avangarda [As Always – about the Avant-garde. Anthology of the French Avant-garde Theatre] (pp. 196–201). Moscow: TPF Soyuzteatr.
- Vasenina, E. (2016). Kogda kino tantsuyet: interviyu s rezhissyom fil’ma “Kanningem” Alloy Kovgan [When the Cinema Dances: An Interview with Alla Kovgan, the Director of the Film “Cunningham”]. Teatr, No. 27–28. Retrieved from http://oteatre.info/kogda-kino-tantsuet