Non-Formal Education as a Resource of Social Inclusion: Intergenerational Approach


This article contributes to a better understanding of theoretical models and empirical evidence revealing the impact of social inclusion of non-formal education on professional and personal development in the context of five generations. Based on the typology of peculiar generations in the non-formal education market, including their interest and motivation, we have identified the differences between the benefits and the barriers to social inclusion in order to overcome social inequalities and digital inequities. Due to the fact that all generations use non-formal education, but its contribution to social inclusion differs from generation to generation, our research questions are as following: What is the impact of non-formal education on social inclusion? How do non-formal education practices differ across generations? The article critically engages with non-formal education as a resource of social inclusion highlighting the low level of inclusion of five generations. To show the specificity of five generations’ social inclusion we develop a data collection method including a questionnaire survey of the population based on the typology of generations. As such, the research shows that today inclusion through non-formal education, mobility in the labor market due to retraining, as well as inclusion in new social ties, study groups, adaptation to new challenges do have generational characteristics.

Author Biographies

Marina N. Kicherova, University of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russia

Marina N. Kicherova, Cand. Sci. (Sociology), Associate Professor, Department of General and Economic Sociology, University of Tyumen. Marina N. Kicherova has been conducting research in various aspects of sociological studies for over 30 years. Her interests revolve around understanding the co-action of social and digital inclusion, as well as studying sociology of education, non-formal education, human capital, skills and competencies, continuing education for adults, and lifelong learning.

Galina Z. Efimova, University of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russia

Galina Z. Efimova, Cand. Sci. (Sociology), Prof., Department of General and Economic Sociology, University of Tyumen. She has been involved in several research projects on sociology of education, sociology of science, sociology of higher education, student youth, scientific and pedagogical employees, scientists. During her career, Galina Z. Efimova has published more than 100 research articles. Among her most recent foci of interest are competitiveness, higher education, students’ youth, and teachers’ competencies.

Svetlana M. Gertsen, University of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russia

Svetlana M. Gertsen, Cand. Sci. (Sociology), Associate Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Communication Technologies, University of Tyumen. Along with socio-economic research, she develops approaches to teaching academic English for master students both in publishing methodological and scientific materials. Currently, she has been selected as a scholarship recipient for TESOL International one-year global membership and has been included in RELO community working with English teachers throughout the world in order to enhance mutual understanding between peoples and nations.

How to Cite
Kicherova, M., Efimova, G., & Gertsen, S. (2022). Non-Formal Education as a Resource of Social Inclusion: Intergenerational Approach. Changing Societies & Personalities, 6(4). doi:10.15826/csp.2022.6.4.205