Social and Economic Factors of Violence Against Women in the South of Moldova: Identification, Estimation, and Mechanisms of Elimination
A surge in violence against women requires a better understanding of its causes and factors, which is the problem that this study seeks to address. This study aims to identify mechanisms through which these factors are reproduced on all levels of the gender system (individual, family, social milieu, professional milieu, state institutions). The focus is made on the case of the Autonomous Territorial Unit Gagauzia in Moldova. The study relies on systems analysis methods and approaches based on the institutional economic theory, systems theory and gender economics to assess the impact of socio-economic factors on the likelihood of intimate partner violence (IPV) in this region. In Gagauzia, there is a decline in women’s opportunities to realize their economic rights and ensure their financial independence. While the incomes of households are falling, gender discrimination, including physical violence, is perceived as justified by more and more people. Another contributing factor is the lack of effective mechanisms for IPV prevention. The factors contributing to IPV are related to the system of specialized institutions, which impose sanctions for violating the rules of gender stereotypical behavior. The study proposes a set of projects to promote more egalitarian norms on all levels of the gender system.