Where am I Now: Symbols Used in Manggarai Funeral Rite, Indonesia

  • Hieronimus Canggung Darong Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0050-0040
  • Erna Mena Niman Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2218-3069
  • Stanislaus Guna Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia


A symbol has a specific meaning and represents the user’s conception, way of thinking, and interpretation. This study aimed to analyze the symbolic interactions of the Manggarai ethnic funeral rite. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and documents. The results of the analysis showed that the symbols are employed as a spiritual and social tool to aid understanding of the outside world as well as to describe and learn the transcendent secret world, such as the “truth of being”. Therefore, the symbols used reflect the interpersonal relations with others, ancestors, and God, called socio-theological relations, and profound philosophy of existence, as they are extremely vulnerable and totally reliant on their predecessors and God.

Author Biographies

Hieronimus Canggung Darong, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia

Hieronimus Canggung Darong currently holds the position of Associate Professor at St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia, specializing in the fields of English Language Teaching and Literature. His research encompasses the domains of corpus studies of classroom discourse, English language teaching methodology, language assessment, as well as the intricate nexus between language and culture.

Erna Mena Niman, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia

Erna Mena Niman is a faculty member of the Primary School Teacher Education program at St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia. Throughout her career, she has taught at various academic levels, ranging from junior high to university. Her research interests are focused on assessment, culture, pedagogy counselling, and teaching. Additionally, she is actively engaged in community service, with a particular focus on pedagogy and character building.

Stanislaus Guna, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Santu Paulus (St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia), Ruteng, Indonesia

Stanislaus Guna is a senior lecturer at the English Department of St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia. He obtained his bachelor's degree from UNIKA Widya Mandira in 1997 and successfully completed his master's degree from UNIKA Widya Mandala in 2015. Most of his career has been dedicated to teaching the English language at various levels, from senior high school to university. Currently, he serves as the coordinator of the English Study Program at St. Paul Catholic University of Indonesia.


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How to Cite
Darong, H., Niman, E., & Guna, S. (2023). Where am I Now: Symbols Used in Manggarai Funeral Rite, Indonesia. Changing Societies & Personalities, 7(2), 150–172. doi:10.15826/csp.2023.7.2.235