Religious Education in India: Debates and Experiences
Religious education has remained largely absent from school and university curricula in India though its significance has been underlined by a plethora of government committees on education. Its absence can be traced to the imperatives of rule, both in the colonial period, and in post Independent India, and the need to balance competing claims and pressures. This paper shows how, on the one hand, the policy of religious neutrality – and later avowed secularism – and on the other, a desire for inculcation of moral, “spiritual” and “Indian” values tended to favour a natural religion approach. This idea of natural religion though comes to be inflected with a majoritarian bias.
- Chavan, S. B., Das Gupta, B., Bairagi, B., Zahidi, K. G., Singh ‘Surya’, R. & Rajagopal, O. 81st Report on Value-Based Education. (called the S. B. Chavan Committee). Presented to the Rajya Sabha on 19.04.1999. Retrieved from http://126.96.36.199/rs/book2/reports/HRD/81reportvbe.html
- Ayyar, R. V. V. (2017). History of Education Policymaking in India, 1947–2016. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
- Biswas, A., & Agrawal, S. P. (1986). Development of Education in India: A Historical Survey of Educational Documents Before and After Independence. Delhi: Concept Publishing House.
- Central Bureau of Education, Ministry of Education. (1948). Progress of Education in India (1937–1947), Decennial Review, Vol. 1. (also called the Sargent Report). Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/progressofeducat031833mbp/progressofeducat031833mbp_djvu.txt
- Chatterjee, N. (2011). The Making of Indian Secularism: Empire, Law and Christianity, 1830–1960. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. 5. (1947, August). Retrieved from https://cadindia.clpr.org.in/constitution_assembly_debates/volume/5/1947-08-28
- Constituent Assembly Debates, Vol. 7. (1948, November). Retrieved from https://cadindia.clpr.org.in/constitution_assembly_debates/volume/7/1948-11-18
- Gandhi, M. K. (1928). Religious Education. Young India. Retrieved from http://www.gandhiashramsevagram.org/towards-new-education/religious-education.php
- Government of India. (1883). Report of the Indian Education Commission. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/ReportOfTheIndianEducationCommission/99999990316603-ReportOfTheIndianEducationCommission_djvu.txt
- Lelyveld, D. (1982). Disenchantment at Aligarh: Islam and the Realm of the Secular in Late Nineteenth Century India. Die Welt des Islams, New Series, 22(1/4), 85–102.
- Macaulay, T. B. (1835). Minute on Education. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/macaulay/txt_minute_education_1835.html
- Ministry of Education, Government of India. (1962). The Report of the University Education Commission, Dec 1948 – August 1949, Vol. 1. (also called the Radhakrishnan Commission) (First published 1950).
- Shah, M. B. (2002). Ms. Aruna Roy and Others vs Union of India. 7 SCC 368. Retrieved from https://indiankanoon.org/doc/509065/
- Oesterheld, J. (2007). Education, Cultural Diversity and Citizenship in Late Colonial India. (EMIGRA Working Papers, No. 58). Retrieved from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/emigrawp/emigrawp_a2007n58/emigrawp_a2007n58p1.pdf
- Sethi, A. (2010). Education for Life, Through Life: A Gandhian Paradigm. In J. Das (Ed.). NCERT Memorial Lecture Series (pp. 3–10). Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training.
- Whitehead, C. (2004). The Christian Missions and the Origins of the Indian Education Mission 1882–83. Education Research and Perspectives, 31(2), 120–136.
- Wood, C. (1854 ). Comprehensive Despatch of the Court of Directors to the Government of India, dated 19th July 1854. (Also known as Wood’s Despatch). In Syed Mahmood (Ed.). History of English Education in India: Its Rise, Development, Progress, Present Condition and Prospects (1781–1893). Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.