Transformation of societies entails the replacement of existing socio-cultural values with new ones and the development of new ideas applicable to new situations. These changes involve values concerning political life, social order, religion, work motivation, gender roles, behavior patterns, social interactions, etc. Changes of values do not occur in a uniform fashion in all domains and social settings. In many cases, values gradually become personal concerns leading to individual choice of life-style. Rules and prescriptions imposed by political and non-political structures are no longer taken for granted. However there are defenders of so-called traditional values representing hierarchical institutions, both religious and secular in many regions of the world.